## Problem 1. Neural Networks

The figure below shows a 2-layer, feed-forward neural network with two hidden-layer nodes and one output node. x1 and x2 are the two inputs. For the following questions, assume the learning rate is = 0.1. Each node also has a bias input value of +1. Assume there is a sigmoid activation function at the hidden layer nodes and at the output layer node. A sigmoid activation node, xi is the ith incoming input value, and n is the number of incoming edges to the node.

• (a) Calculate the output values at nodes h1, h2 and of this network for input {x1 = 0, x2 = 1}. Each unit produces as its output the real value computed by the unit’s associated sigmoid function. Show all steps in your calculation.
• (b) Compute one (1) step of the backpropagation algorithm for a given example with input {x1 = 0, x2 = 1} and target output y = 1. The network output is the real-valued output of the sigmoid function., where O is the real-valued network output of that example at the output node, and y is the integer- valued target output for that example. Compute the updated weights for both the hidden layer and the output layer (there are nine updated weights in total (i.e., the three incoming weights to node h1, the three incoming weights to node h2 and the three incoming weights to node ) by performing ONE step of gradient descent. Show all steps in your calculation.

## Problem 2. Constraint Satisfaction Problems

Consider the following graph representing 7 countries on a map that needs to be colored using three different colors, 1, 2 and 3, so that no adjacent countries have the same color. Adjacencies are represented by edges in the graph. We can represent this problem as a CSP where the variables are the countries and the values are the colors.

• (a) What are the domains of all the variables after applying Forward Checking inference with variables ordered alphabetically (from A to G) and values ordered increasingly (from 1 to 3), assuming you start with each variable having all possible values except it is known that A has value 1 and E has value 2?
• (b) Apply the Backtracking Search algorithm (Figure 6.5 in the textbook) with Forward Checking inference (Section 6.3.2), assuming you start with each variable having all possible values. Variables and values are chosen following alphabetical ordering of the variables (A to G) and increasing order of the values (1 to 3), respectively. Show your result as a search tree where each node in the tree shows each variable with its set of possible values. Arcs in the search tree should be labeled with an assignment of a selected value to a selected variable. If a solution is found, show the final coloring of the map. The search tree only needs to show nodes and arcs until a single solution is found.
• (c) What are the domains of all the variables after applying Arc-Consistency(AC-3) inference (Figure 6.3) with variables ordered alphabetically and values ordered increasingly, assuming you start with each variable having all possible values except it is known that A has value 1, B has value 1, and C has value 2? List all the possible outcomes.

## Problem 3. Back-Propagation for Handwritten Digit Recognition

In this problem you are to write a program that builds a 2-layer, feed-forward neural network and trains it using the back-propagation algorithm. The problem that the neural network will handle is a multi-class classification problem for recognizing images of handwritten digits. All inputs to the neural network will be numeric. The neural network has one hidden layer. The network is fully connected between consecutive layers, meaning each unit, which we’ll call a node, in the input layer is connected to all nodes in the hidden layer, and each node in the hidden layer is connected to all nodes in the output layer. Each node in the hidden layer and the output layer will also have an extra input from a “bias node” that has constant value +1. So, we can consider both the input layer and the hidden layer as containing one additional node called a bias node. All nodes in the hidden layer (except for the bias node) should use the ReLU activation function, while all the nodes in the output layer should use the Softmax activation function. The initial weights of the network will be set randomly (already implemented in the skeleton code). Assuming that input examples (called instances in the code) have m attributes (hence there are m input nodes, not counting the bias node) and we want h nodes (not counting the bias node) in the hidden layer, and o nodes in the output layer, then the total number of weights in the network is (m +1)h between the input and hidden layers, and (h+1)o connecting the hidden and output layers. The number of nodes to be used in the hidden layer will be given as input.

You are only required to implement the following methods in the classes NNImpl and Node:

• void calculateOutput()
calculates the output at the current node and stores that value in a member variable called outputValue

• void calculateDelta()
calculates the delta value, at the current node and stores that value in a member variable called delta

• void updateWeight(double learningRate)
updates the weights between parent nodes and the current node using the provided learning rate

• int predict (Instance inst)
calculates the output (i.e., the index of the class) from the neural network for a given example

• void train()
trains the neural network using a training set, fixed learning rate, and number of epochs (provided as input to the program). This function also prints the total Cross-Entropy loss on all the training examples after each epoch.

• double loss(Instance inst): calculates the Cross-Entropy loss from the neural network for a single instance. This function will be used by train()

## Dataset

The dataset we will use is called Semeion. It contains 1,593 binary images of size 16 x 16 that each contain one handwritten digit. Your task is to classify each example image as one of the three possible digits: 6, 8 or 9. If desired, you can view an image using the supplied python code called view.py Usage is described at the beginning of this file (this is entirely optional if you want to view what an image in the dataset looks like. In other words, it has nothing to do with your implementation in Java).

Each dataset will begin with a header that describes the dataset: First, there may be several lines starting with “//“ that provide a description and comments about the dataset. The line starting with “**” lists the digits. The line starting with “ ##” lists the number of attributes, i.e., the number of input values in each instance (in our case, the number of pixels). You can assume that the number of classes will always be 3 for this homework because we are only considering 3-class classification problems. The first output node should output a large value when the instance is determined to be in class 1 (here meaning it is digit 6). The second output node should output a large value when the instance is in class 2 (i.e., digit 8) and, similarly, the third output node corresponds to class 3 (i.e., digit 9). Following these header lines, there will be one line for each instance, containing the values of each attribute followed by the target/teacher values for each output node. For example, if the last 3 values for an instance are: 0 0 1 then this means the instance is the digit 9. We have written the dataset loading part for you according to this format, so do not change it.

## Implementation Details

We have created four classes to assist your coding, called Instance, Node, NNImpl and NodeWeightPair. Their data members and methods are commented in the skeleton code. An overview of these classes is given next.

The Instance class has two data members: ArrayList[Double] attributes and ArrayList[Integer] classValues. It is used to represent one instance (aka example) as the name suggests. attributes is a list of all the attributes (in our case binary pixel values) of that instance (all of them are double) and classValues is the class (e.g., 1 0 0 for digit 6) for that instance.

The most important data member of the Node class is int type. It can take the values 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4. Each value represents a particular type of node. The meanings of these values are:

• 0: an input node
• 1: a bias node that is connected to all hidden layer nodes
• 2: a hidden layer node
• 3: a bias node that is connected to all output layer nodes
• 4: an output layer node

Node also has a data member double inputValue that is only relevant if the type is 0. Its value can be updated using the method `void setInput(doubleinputValue)`. It also has a data member `ArrayList<NodeWeightPair>` parents, which is a list of all the nodes that are connected to this node from the previous layer (along with the weight connecting these two nodes). This data member is relevant only for types 2 and 4. The neural network is fully connected, which means that all nodes in the input layer (including the bias node) are connected to each node in the hidden layer and, similarly, all nodes in the hidden layer (including the bias node) are connected to the node in the output layer. The output of each node in the output layer is stored in double outputValue. You can access this value using the method `double getOutput()` which is already implemented. You only need to complete the method `void calculateOutput()`. This method should calculate the output activation value at the node if it’s of type 2 or 4. The calculated output should be stored in outputValue. The value is determined by the definition of the activation function (ReLU or Softmax), which depends on the type of node (type 2 means ReLU, type 4 means Softmax).

NodeWeightPair has two data members, Node and weight. These should be self-explanatory. NNImpl is the class that maintains the whole neural network. It maintains lists of all input nodes (`ArrayList<Node> inputNodes`), hidden layer nodes (`ArrayList<Node> hiddenNodes`), and output layer nodes (`ArrayList<Node> outputNodes`). The last node in both the input layer and the hidden layer is the bias node for that layer. Its constructor creates the whole network and maintains the links. So, you do not have to worry about that as it’s already implemented in the skeleton code. As mentioned before, you must implement these three methods here. The data members `ArrayList<Instance> trainingSet, double learningRate` and `int maxEpoch` will be required for this. To train the network, implement the back-propagation algorithm given in the textbook (Figure 18.24) or in the lecture slides. Implement it by updating all the weights in the network after each instance (as is done in the algorithm in the textbook), so you will be doing a form of Stochastic Gradient Descent for training. Use Cross-Entropy loss as the loss function at the output nodes for the back- propagation algorithm. Details about Cross-Entropy loss are available at http://ml-cheatsheet.readthedocs.io/en/latest/loss_functions.html Finally, remember to change the input values of each input layer node (except the bias node) when using each new training instance to train the network.

## Classification

Based on the outputs of the output nodes, `int predict(Instance inst)` classifies the instance as the index of the output node with the maximum value. For example, if one instance has outputs [0.1, 0.3, 0.6], this instance will be classified as digit 9. If there are multiple maximum values, the smallest digit will be predicted. For example, if the outputs are [0.4 0.4 0.2], then the instance should be classified as 6.

## Testing

We will test your program on multiple training and testing sets, and the format of testing commands will be:

``````java DigitClassifier <numHidden> <learnRate> <maxEpoch> <trainFile> <testFile>
``````

where trainFile, and testFile are the names of training and testing datasets, respectively. numHidden specifies the number of nodes in the hidden layer (excluding the bias node at the hidden layer). learnRate and maxEpoch are the learning rate and the number of epochs that the network will be trained, respectively. To facilitate debugging, we are providing you with sample training data and testing data in the files train1.txt and test1.txt. We are also providing you the file testcases.txt which contains three example test cases. The outputs for these three test cases are also provided. A sample test command is

``````java DigitClassifier 5 0.01 100 train1.txt test1.txt
``````

You are not responsible for handling parsing of the training and testing datasets, creating the network, or printing test dataset results on console. We have written the class DigitClassifier for you, which will load the data and pass it to the method you are implementing. Do NOT modify any IO code. As part of our testing process, we will unzip the java files you submit to Canvas, call javac DigitClassifier.java to compile your code, and then call it with above command, with parameters of our choice.

## Deliverables

Hand in your modified versions of NNImpl.java and Node.java that include your implementation of the back-propagation algorithm. Also submit any additional helper .java files required to run your program (including the provided ones in the skeleton). Do not submit any other files including the data files (no .class or .txt files). Also, all the .java files should be zipped as `<wiscNetID>-HW4-P3.zip` for submission to Canvas.

## Notes

• Use the `Collections.shuffle(list,random)` function on the training data with the random object available in the class only once before every epoch while implementing the `void train()` function. For the purpose of this homework, we fixed the random object to a certain value. Therefore, you should not worry about what random is. You only have to make sure that the shuffling given above happens once before every epoch.
• After each epoch of training and weight updating, print the cumulative Cross-Entropy loss on the entire training set in the format shown in the sample output. This should be done in the `train()` function. Use 3 decimal double precision using `%.3e` to get the required formatting of the sample output.
• Do not include package statements in your final submission (i.e., do not include statements in the java files that start with the keyword package).
• You only need to implement the above-mentioned methods and you must not change any other existing function implementations. However, you are free to add any helper methods you’d like to implement these methods.
• Make sure your implementation can run under 30 seconds for a maxEpoch of 100 and 10 hidden units, otherwise it will timeout by the grading script.
• To better understand how backpropagation and weight updating work in detail, you can look at the following tutorial. Note, however, that the example in this tutorial uses a different loss function; therefore, the computations made in the tutorial will not be exactly the same as in this homework.